giovedì 30 gennaio 2014

Frasi chiavi per la lingua inglese. Ottava Serie: Vocabulary. Advanced

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Sommario: 1. Abbreviations and acronyms. –  2.  Prefixes: creating new meanings: Over-, Under-, Up-,  Cross. – 3. Suffixes: productive suffixes and word classes: -able, -conscious, -esque, - free, -rich, -led, -minded, -proof, -related, -ridden, -worthy. -

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Abbreviations and acronyms

1. Abbreviations are simply the shortening of words and expressions.
2. These are some common abbreviations from Latin:
3. e.g. for example, from exempli gratia.
4. i.e. that is, from id est.
5. NB note well, from nota bene.
6. AD the year of Our Lord, used to count years from the birth of Christ, from Anno Domini.

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Prefixes: creating new meanings 
Over-, Under-, Up-,  Cross-

A garden
1. Over- may indicated an excess of something (a), or something that covers or dominates something (b), or the crossing of some kind of barrier (c).
2. Excess: That film was overrated in my view.
3. Excess: It was a bad restaurant, with an overpriced menu.
4. Cover: In this program, you can choose to overwrite the existing file or to save it as a new file.
5. Cover: Our garden is overshadowed by the block of flats next door.
6. Cover: She always felt overshadowed by her older, more successful, sister.
7. Cross: He overstepped the mark when he said that.
8. Will you be staying overnight?
9. Under- may indicate less than the desidered amount (a), or something below another thing (b), or some kind of negative behaviour (c).
10. Less: Don’t underestimate the time it will take.
A door
11. Less: The company is seriously understaffed.
12. Below: It’s quiet wet underfoot? Did it rain last night?
13. Below: The underlying question is a very difficult one.
14. Negative: I wish you would not undermine everything I do.
15. Negative: He did it a very in a very underhand way.
16. Up- can suggest a change of some kind, often positive.
17. The airline upgraded me to businnes class.
18. There has been an upturn in the economy.
19. Cross- (from across) usually indicates a link between two separated things.
20. Cross-border cooperation has led to a number of arrests of drug smugglers.
21. Cross-cultural misunderstanding often happen.

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Suffixes: productive suffixes and word classes:
-able, -conscious, -esque, - free, -rich, -led, -minded, -proof, -related, -ridden, -worthy.

1. Some suffisses are productive, i.e. used to create new words.
2. You therefore need to understand their meaning if you are reading contemporary English.
3. -able can be used productive, whereas -ible never is.
4. Note that -able means ‘can be’: a washable jacket is onte that can be washed.
5. In the word washable, wash is the root and able is the suffix.
6. Disposable nappies, predictable results, avoidable problems, a manageable situation.
7. -conscious: combines with nouns to form adjectives that describe people who consider one aspect of their lives especially important: health-conscious person, class-conscius society, safety-conscius company, time-conscius workforce.
8.  -esque combines with the names of of famous people to form adjectives that describe something or someone similar in style: Picassoesque paintings.
9. -free combines with nouns describing something undesiderable to form adjectives to describe nouns without that indesiderable aspect: stress-free diet, tax-free shop, additive-free foof.
10. -rich combines with nouns (often chemical or organic substances) to form adjectives to describe nouns with a lot of that substance: fibre-rich diet, calcium-rich foods.

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